Transformation of Sentences
The nature of the sentences can be changed without changing the meaning of the sentence.
I. Affirmative to Negative :
Rule 1: Only/alone/merely – Replaced by — None but (person)/nothing but (thing)/ more than or not less than (number).
E.g. : Aff: Only Mohan can help us.
Neg: None but Malian Can help us.
Aff: He has only a ball.
Neg: He has nothing but a ball.
Aff: He has only few rupees.
Neg: He has not more than few rupees.
Rule 2: Must- Replaced by — cannot but/ cannot help+ (verb + ing).
E.g. : Aff: We must obey our teachers.
Neg: we cannot but obey our teachers/ we cannot help obeying our teachers.
Rule 3: Both—and – Replaced by— not only —but also.
E.g. : Aff: Both Rishi and Sanchu were happy.
Neg: Not only Rishi but also Senchu were happy.
Rule 4: And (if join two words) – Replaced by — not only —-but also.
E.g. : Aff: He was smart and gentle.
Neg: He was not only smart but also gentle.
Rule 5: Everyone/ everybody / every person/(every + common noun)/all – Replaced by — There is no + attached word + but.
E.g. : Aff: Every mother loves her child.
Neg: There is no mother but loves her child.
Rule 6: As soon as – Replaced by — No sooner had —-Than.
E.g. : Aff: As soon as the students saw the teacher, they ran away.
Neg: No sooner had the students saw the teacher they ran away.
Rule 7: Absolute Superlative degree – Replaced by — No other+ attached word + so+ verb form+ as+ subject.
E.g. : Aff: Delhi is the biggest city in India.
Neg: No other city is as big as Delhi in India.
Rule 8: Sometimes affirmative sentences are Replaced into negative by using opposite word. Before the word, off course ’not’ is used.
E.g. : Aff: I shall remember my school teachers.
Neg : I shall not forget my school teachers.
Rule 9: Always – Replaced by — never.
E.g. : Aff: Ridhi always attends the music class.
Neg: Ridhi never miss the music class.
Rule 10 : Too— to – Replaced by — –that + cannot (in present) / could not (in past).
Eg : Aff: He is too weak to solve the mathematical problems.
Neg: He is so weak that he cannot solve the mathematical problems.
Rule 11: As – Replaced by — not less—than.
E.g.: Aff: Simi was as wise as Rimi.
Neg: Simi was not less wise than Rimi.
Rule 12: Sometimes – Replaced by — Not + always.
E.g. : Aff: Anne sometimes comes to my house.
Neg: Anne doesn’t always come to my house.
Rule 13 : Many – Replaced by — not a few.
E.g. : Aff : l have many western dresses. Neg : I do not have few western dresses.
Rule 14 : A few – Replaced by — not many.
E.g. : Aff : The class has a few good students.
Neg : The class doesn’t have many good students.
Rule 15 : Much – Replaced by — a little.
E.g.: Aff : He belongs much money.
Neg : He doesn’t belong a little money.
Rule 16 : A little – Replaced by — not much. E.g. : Aff: Rishita has a little riches.
Neg : Rishita doesn’t have much riches.
II. Assertive to Interrogative :
Rule 1: If the sentence is in the affirmative you have to Replace it into negative interrogative. If it is in negative then you have to change it into bare interrogative.
E.g. : Ass: He was very cruel.
Int : Wasn’t he very cruel ?
Ass : He is not a good person.
lnt : Is he a good person ?
Rule 2: No auxiliary verb in sentence – Replaced by — using – Do/ does/ did Or Don‘t/ doesn’t.
E.g. : Ass : He plays Football.
Int : Does he play football ?
Ass : They did not play football yesterday.
Int : Did they play football yesterday ?
Rule 3: Never- Replaced by — Ever.
E.g. : Ass : I never make false assumptions.
Int : Do I ever make false assumptions?
Rule 4: Everybody/ everyone/ All – Replaced by — Who + Don’t/ Doesn’t/ Didn‘t.
E.g. : Ass: Everybody wishes to be happy.
lnt : Who doesn’t wish to be happy ?
Rule 5: Every + noun – Replaced by — Is there any + noun+ who don‘t/ doesn‘t/ didn‘t.
Eg. : Ass : Every student wishes to score well.
Int : Is there any student who doesn’t wish to score well ?
Rule 6: No body / no one / none – Replaced by — who.
E.g : Ass: Nobody could able to achieve the goal.
Int : Who could ever able to achieve the goal ?
Rule 7: There is no – Replaced by — Is there any/Who (person)/ When (thing).
E.g. : Ass : There is no use of this book.
Int : What is the use of this hook.
Ass: There is no man happier than Jamil. Int : Who is Happier than Jamil.
Rule 8 : It is no – Replaced by — is there any/ Why.
E.g. : Ass: It is no use of taking unfair means in the exam.
Int : Why take unfair means in the exam ?
III. Exclamatory Sentence to Assertive Sentence :
Rule 1: Subject and Verb of exclamatory sentence are to be used as the subject and verb assertive sentence at the outset of the sentence.
How / what – Replaced by — Very (before adjective)/ Great (before noun)
E.g.: Excl : How lucky you are!
Ass : You are very lucky.
Excl : What a fool you are!
Ass : You are a great fool.
Rule 2: Sometimes the subject and verb may be eclipsed.
E.g. : Excl : What a beautiful scenery!
Ass : It is a very beautiful scenery.
Excl : What a pity!
Ass : It is a great pity.
Rule 3: Hurrah/ Bravo – Replaced by — I / we rejoice that/ It is a matter of joy that.
E.g. Excl : Hurrah! We have own the prize. Ass : It is a matter of joy that we have won the prize.
Rule 4: Alas – Replaced by — I/ we mourn that/ It is a matter of sorrow or grief that.
E.g. Excl : Alas! He is dead.
Ass : We mourn that he is dead.
Rule 5 : Had/ were/ If – Replaced by — I wish + subject again + were/ had+ rest part.
E.g. Excl : Had I the wings of a bird!
Ass : I Wish I had the wings of a bird.
Excl : Were I a poet!
Ass : I wish I were a poet.
Excl: If I were angel!
Ass : I wish I were angel.
IV. Imperative to Assertive :
Rule 1: Add subject + should in doing assertive.
E.g. : Imp: Close the door.
Ass : You should close the door.
Rule 2: Please /kindly – Replaced by — you are requested to.
E.g. : Imp: Please, give me.
Ass : You are requested to give me.
Rule 3: Do not – Replaced by — you should not.
E.g : Imp:Do not run in the rain.
Ass: You should not run in the rain
Rule 4: Never – Replaced by — you should never.
E.g. : Imp: Never hurt others.
Ass: You should never hurt others.
Rule 5: Let us – Replaced by — we should.
E.g. : Imp: Let us go for shopping.
Ass: We should go for shopping.
Rule 6: Let + noun/ pronoun – Replaced by — Subject + might.
E.g. : Imp: Let him go for a movie.
Ass: He might go for a movie.
V. Change of Degree :
Rule 1: If the superlative degree says about the best thing then the rule is —
For comparative, use – subject + verb + adjective/adverb (comp. form) + than any other + rest part.
For positive, use – No other + rest part after superlative degree + verb + so / as + positive form of adjective/ adverb + as + subject.
E.g. : Superlative: Mount Everest is the tallest mountain.
Comparative: Mount Everest is taller than any other mountain.
Positive: No other mountain is as tall as Mount Everest.
Rule 2: If In superlative degree ’One of the’ is transformed in this way —
Comparative : Subject + verb + comp. form +than most other+ Rest part.
Positive : Very few + rest part after superlative degree + verb + so / as + positive form of adjective/ adverb + as + subject.
E.g. : Superlative: Ramanujan was one of the greatest mathematician in India.
Comparative: Ramanujan was greater than most other mathematician in India.
Positive : Very few mathematicians in India were so great as Ramanujan.
Note : Superlative : Of all / of any
Comparative : Than all other/ than any other.
Positive : No other
E.g. : Superlative : Mr Patel is the youngest of all men in the village.
Comparative : Mr Patel is younger than all other men in the village.
Positive : No other man is as young as Mr. Patel.
Rule 3: Simple comparative is transformed into positive by using —
Not so + adjective/ adverb + as / so + adjective/ adverb + as if negative. Second noun or pronoun is used first.
E.g. : Comparative: Rini is clever than Mina.
Positive: Mina is not so clever as Rini.
Comparative: Mina is not cleaver than Rini.
Positive: Rini is as clever as Mina.
Rule 4: No/ not less—-than – is transformed into positive by using as +adjective / adverb + as.
E.g. : Comparative: Karim is not less meritorious than Jimmy.
Positive: Karim is so meritorious as Jimmy.
VI. Complex to Simple to Compound :
Rule 1: Since /As/When — The change is to be made in the subordinate clause, when subjects are same.
E.g. : Complex: Since the boy worked hard, he made a good profit in his business.
Simple: Working hard, the boy made a good profit in his business.
Compound: The boy worked hard and he made a good profit.
When converting to simple sentence :
i. Omit since /as /when.
ii. (Verb+ing) of the subordinate clause.
iii. Then write the rest part.
iv. Use subject with the principal clause.
v. Principal clause remains unchanged.
Rule 2: In case of Be verb in subordinate clause —
E.g. : Complex: Since he was ill, he could not work hard.
1) Use being/ Because of + Pronoun/ noun (possessive form)+ being.
Simple: Because of his being ill, he could not work hard.
Compound : He was ill and therefore could not work hard.
(Note : and therefore, is used for showing reasons.)
Rule 3: When the subjects of clauses are different —
E.g. : Complex: Since the shops were closed, we did not go out.
1) Verb + ing (be verb being; Have verb – having)
Simple : The shops being closed, we did not go out.
Compound : The shops were closed and therefore, we did not go out.
(Note : use ’and therefore’ to join two clauses).
Rule 4: If – Replaced by — ’by’ + (verb + ing)
E.g. : Complex: If you listen to the lecture, you will be able to do the assignment.
Simple: By listening to the lecture, you will be able to do the assignment
1) Omit if + subject.
2) Use ’and’ to join two clauses
Compound: Listen to the lecture and you will able to do the assignment.
Rule 5: Simple: If not/ unless – Replaced by — without+(verb + ing)
E.g. : Complex: If you do not work hard, you will get poor marks in the examination.
Simple: Without working hard, you will get poor marks in the examination.
1)Use or / otherwise to join two clauses.
Compound: Work hard or you will get poor marks in the examination.
Rule 6: Simple : Though – Replaced by — In spite of+ Possessive form of the sublect + ing.
E.g. : Complex: Though he tried heart and soul, he could not succeed in life.
Simple : In spite of his trying heart and soul he could not succeed in life.
1)Use ’but’ to join two clauses.
Compound: He tried heart and soul but he could not succeed in life.
Rule 7: Simple: So that is – Replaced by —to/ in order to.
E.g. : Complex: He must work hard so that he may make up for the last time.
Simple : He must work hard to/ in order to make up for the lost time.
1)“and want/ wants to” is used to join two clauses.
Compound: He must work hard and wants to make up for the lost time.
Rule 8: Simple: ’so + adjective + that’ is – Replaced by — ‘too + adjective + to’.
E.g. : Complex: The boy is so foolish that he cannot understand it.
Simple : The boy is too foolish to understand it.
1) Use ‘And Therefore’ to make it a compound sentence.
Compound: He is so foolish and therefore cannot understand it.