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Transformation of Sentences 

The nature of the sentences can be changed without changing the meaning of the sentence.

I. Affirmative to Negative :

Rule 1: Only/alone/merely – Replaced by — None but (person)/nothing but (thing)/ more than or not less than (number).

E.g. : Aff: Only Mohan can help us.

Neg: None but Malian Can help us.


Aff: He has only a ball.

Neg: He has nothing but a ball.


Aff: He has only few rupees.

Neg: He has not more than few rupees.


Rule 2: Must- Replaced by — cannot but/ cannot help+ (verb + ing).

E.g. : Aff: We must obey our teachers.

Neg: we cannot but obey our teachers/ we cannot help obeying our teachers.


Rule 3: Both—and – Replaced by— not only —but also.

E.g. : Aff: Both Rishi and Sanchu were happy.

Neg: Not only Rishi but also Senchu were happy.


Rule 4: And (if join two words) – Replaced by — not only —-but also. 

E.g. : Aff: He was smart and gentle.

Neg: He was not only smart but also gentle.


Rule 5: Everyone/ everybody / every person/(every + common noun)/all – Replaced by — There is no + attached word + but.

E.g. : Aff: Every mother loves her child.

Neg: There is no mother but loves her child.


Rule 6: As soon as – Replaced by — No sooner had —-Than.

E.g. : Aff: As soon as the students saw the teacher, they ran away.

Neg: No sooner had the students saw the teacher they ran away.


Rule 7: Absolute Superlative degree – Replaced by — No other+ attached word + so+ verb form+ as+ subject.

E.g. : Aff: Delhi is the biggest city in India.

Neg: No other city is as big as Delhi in India.


Rule 8: Sometimes affirmative sentences are Replaced into negative by using opposite word.  Before the word, off course ’not’ is used.

E.g. : Aff: I shall remember my school teachers.

Neg : I shall not forget my school teachers.


Rule 9: Always – Replaced by — never.

E.g. : Aff: Ridhi always attends the music class.

Neg: Ridhi never miss the music class.


Rule 10 : Too— to – Replaced by — –that + cannot (in present) / could not (in past). 

Eg : Aff: He is too weak to solve the mathematical problems.

Neg: He is so weak that he cannot solve the mathematical problems.


Rule 11: As – Replaced by —  not less—than.

E.g.: Aff: Simi was as wise as Rimi.

Neg: Simi was not less wise than Rimi.


Rule 12: Sometimes – Replaced by —  Not + always.

E.g. : Aff: Anne sometimes comes to my house.

Neg: Anne doesn’t always come to my house.


Rule 13 : Many – Replaced by — not a few.

E.g. : Aff : l have many western dresses. Neg : I do not have few western dresses.


Rule 14 : A few – Replaced by — not many.

E.g. : Aff : The class has a few good students.

Neg : The class doesn’t have many good students.


Rule 15 : Much – Replaced by — a little.

E.g.: Aff : He belongs much money.

Neg : He doesn’t belong a little money.


Rule 16 : A little – Replaced by — not much. E.g. : Aff: Rishita has a little riches.

Neg : Rishita doesn’t have much riches.

II. Assertive to Interrogative :

Rule 1: If the sentence is in the affirmative you have to Replace it into negative interrogative. If it is in negative then you have to change it into bare interrogative.

E.g. : Ass: He was very cruel.

Int : Wasn’t he very cruel ?


Ass : He is not a good person.

lnt : Is he a good person ?


Rule 2: No auxiliary verb in sentence – Replaced by — using – Do/ does/ did Or Don‘t/ doesn’t. 

E.g. : Ass : He plays Football.

Int : Does he play football ?


Ass : They did not play football yesterday.

Int : Did they play football yesterday ?


Rule 3: Never- Replaced by — Ever.

E.g. : Ass : I never make false assumptions.

Int : Do I ever make false assumptions?


Rule 4: Everybody/ everyone/ All – Replaced by — Who + Don’t/ Doesn’t/ Didn‘t.

E.g. : Ass: Everybody wishes to be happy.

lnt : Who doesn’t wish to be happy ?


Rule 5: Every + noun – Replaced by — Is there any + noun+ who don‘t/ doesn‘t/ didn‘t.

Eg. : Ass : Every student wishes to score well.

Int : Is there any student who doesn’t wish to score well ?


Rule 6: No body / no one / none – Replaced by — who.

E.g : Ass: Nobody could able to achieve the goal.

Int : Who could ever able to achieve the goal ?


Rule 7: There is no – Replaced by — Is there any/Who (person)/ When (thing).

E.g. : Ass : There is no use of this book.

Int : What is the use of this hook.


Ass: There is no man happier than Jamil. Int : Who is Happier than Jamil.


Rule 8 : It is no – Replaced by — is there any/ Why.

E.g. : Ass: It is no use of taking unfair means in the exam.

Int : Why take unfair means in the exam ?

III. Exclamatory Sentence to Assertive Sentence :

Rule 1: Subject and Verb of exclamatory sentence are to be used as the subject and verb assertive sentence at the outset of the sentence.

How / what – Replaced by — Very (before adjective)/ Great (before noun)

E.g.: Excl : How lucky you are!

Ass : You are very lucky.


Excl : What a fool you are!

Ass : You are a great fool.


Rule 2: Sometimes the subject and verb may be eclipsed.

E.g. : Excl : What a beautiful scenery!

Ass : It is a very beautiful scenery.


Excl : What a pity!

Ass : It is a great pity.


Rule 3: Hurrah/ Bravo – Replaced by — I / we rejoice that/ It is a matter of joy that.

E.g. Excl : Hurrah! We have own the prize. Ass : It is a matter of joy that we have won the prize.


Rule 4: Alas – Replaced by — I/ we mourn that/ It is a matter of sorrow or grief that.

E.g. Excl : Alas! He is dead.

Ass : We mourn that he is dead.


Rule 5 : Had/ were/ If – Replaced by — I wish + subject again + were/ had+ rest part.

E.g. Excl : Had I the wings of a bird!

Ass : I Wish I had the wings of a bird.


Excl : Were I a poet!

Ass : I wish I were a poet.


Excl: If I were angel!

Ass : I wish I were angel.

IV. Imperative to Assertive :

Rule 1: Add subject + should in doing assertive.

E.g. : Imp: Close the door.

Ass : You should close the door.


Rule 2: Please /kindly – Replaced by — you are requested to.

E.g. : Imp: Please, give me.

Ass : You are requested to give me.


Rule 3: Do not – Replaced by — you should not.

E.g : Imp:Do not run in the rain.

Ass: You should not run in the rain


Rule 4: Never – Replaced by — you should never.

E.g. : Imp: Never hurt others.

Ass: You should never hurt others.


Rule 5: Let us – Replaced by — we should.

E.g. : Imp: Let us go for shopping.

Ass: We should go for shopping.


Rule 6: Let + noun/ pronoun – Replaced by — Subject + might.

E.g. : Imp: Let him go for a movie.

Ass: He might go for a movie.

V. Change of Degree :

Rule 1: If the superlative degree says about the best thing then the rule is —

For comparative, use – subject + verb + adjective/adverb (comp. form) + than any other + rest part.

For positive, use – No other + rest part after superlative degree + verb + so / as + positive form of adjective/ adverb + as + subject.

E.g. : Superlative: Mount Everest is the tallest mountain.

Comparative: Mount Everest is taller than any other mountain.

Positive: No other mountain is as tall as Mount Everest.


Rule 2: If In superlative degree ’One of the’ is transformed in this way —

Comparative : Subject + verb + comp. form +than most other+ Rest part.

Positive : Very few + rest part after superlative degree + verb + so / as + positive form of adjective/ adverb + as + subject.

E.g. : Superlative: Ramanujan was one of the greatest mathematician in India.

Comparative: Ramanujan was greater than most other mathematician in India.

Positive : Very few mathematicians in India were so great as Ramanujan.


Note : Superlative : Of all / of any

Comparative : Than all other/ than any other.

Positive : No other


E.g. : Superlative : Mr Patel is the youngest of all men in the village.

Comparative : Mr Patel is younger than all other men in the village.

Positive : No other man is as young as Mr. Patel.


Rule 3: Simple comparative is transformed into positive by using —

Not so + adjective/ adverb + as / so + adjective/ adverb + as if negative. Second noun or pronoun is used first.

E.g. :  Comparative: Rini is clever than Mina.

Positive: Mina is not so clever as Rini.


Comparative: Mina is not cleaver than Rini.

Positive: Rini is as clever as Mina.


Rule 4: No/ not less—-than – is transformed into positive by using as +adjective / adverb + as.

E.g. : Comparative: Karim is not less meritorious than Jimmy.

Positive: Karim is so meritorious as Jimmy.

VI. Complex to Simple to Compound :

Rule 1: Since /As/When — The change is to be made in the subordinate clause, when subjects are same.

E.g. : Complex: Since the boy worked hard, he made a good profit in his business.

Simple: Working hard, the boy made a good profit in his business.

Compound: The boy worked hard and he made a good profit.


When converting to simple sentence :

i. Omit since /as /when.

ii. (Verb+ing) of the subordinate clause.

iii. Then write the rest part.

iv. Use subject with the principal clause.

v. Principal clause remains unchanged.


Rule 2: In case of Be verb in subordinate clause —

E.g. : Complex: Since he was ill, he could not work hard.

1) Use being/ Because of + Pronoun/ noun (possessive form)+ being.

Simple: Because of his being ill, he could not work hard.

Compound : He was ill and therefore could not work hard.

(Note : and therefore, is used for showing reasons.)


Rule 3: When the subjects of clauses are different —

E.g. : Complex: Since the shops were closed, we did not go out.

1) Verb + ing (be verb being; Have verb – having)

Simple : The shops being closed, we did not go out.

Compound : The shops were closed and therefore, we did not go out.

(Note : use ’and therefore’ to join two clauses).


Rule 4: If – Replaced by — ’by’ + (verb + ing)

E.g. : Complex: If you listen to the lecture, you will be able to do the assignment.

Simple: By listening to the lecture, you will be able to do the assignment

1) Omit if + subject.

2) Use ’and’ to join two clauses

Compound: Listen to the lecture and you will able to do the assignment.


Rule 5: Simple: If not/ unless – Replaced by — without+(verb + ing)

E.g. : Complex: If you do not work hard, you will get poor marks in the examination.

Simple: Without working hard, you will get poor marks in the examination.

1)Use or / otherwise to join two clauses.

Compound: Work hard or you will get poor marks in the examination.


Rule 6: Simple : Though – Replaced by — In spite of+ Possessive form of the sublect + ing.

E.g. : Complex: Though he tried heart and soul, he could not succeed in life.

Simple : In spite of his trying heart and soul he could not succeed in life.

1)Use ’but’ to join two clauses.

Compound: He tried heart and soul but he could not succeed in life.


Rule 7: Simple: So that is – Replaced by —to/ in order to.

E.g. : Complex: He must work hard so that he may make up for the last time.

Simple : He must work hard to/ in order to make up for the lost time.

1)“and want/ wants to” is used to join two clauses.

Compound: He must work hard and wants to make up for the lost time.


Rule 8: Simple: ’so + adjective + that’ is – Replaced by — ‘too + adjective + to’.

E.g. : Complex: The boy is so foolish that he cannot understand it.

Simple : The boy is too foolish to understand it.

1) Use ‘And Therefore’ to make it a compound sentence. 

Compound: He is so foolish and therefore cannot understand it.


Dipendu Das

Dipendu Das

Author of Resonating Voices and Resounding Minds. A writer, poet, blogger and web developer. Administrator and Founder of ExamsTopper. Alumnus of Stepping Stone Model School, Alipurduar. Currently pursuing BA. LLB. (Hons.) at the prestigious NLU National University of Study and Research in Law (NUSRL), Ranchi. His work has been published in more than 21 nations around the globe.

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