Tuesday, August 3, 2021

Transformation of Sentences 

The nature of the sentences can be changed without changing the meaning of the sentence.

I. Affirmative to Negative :

Rule 1: Only/alone/merely – Replaced by — None but (person)/nothing but (thing)/ more than or not less than (number).

E.g. : Aff: Only Mohan can help us.

Neg: None but Malian Can help us.


Aff: He has only a ball.

Neg: He has nothing but a ball.


Aff: He has only few rupees.

Neg: He has not more than few rupees.


Rule 2: Must- Replaced by — cannot but/ cannot help+ (verb + ing).

E.g. : Aff: We must obey our teachers.

Neg: we cannot but obey our teachers/ we cannot help obeying our teachers.


Rule 3: Both—and – Replaced by— not only —but also.

E.g. : Aff: Both Rishi and Sanchu were happy.

Neg: Not only Rishi but also Senchu were happy.


Rule 4: And (if join two words) – Replaced by — not only —-but also. 

E.g. : Aff: He was smart and gentle.

Neg: He was not only smart but also gentle.


Rule 5: Everyone/ everybody / every person/(every + common noun)/all – Replaced by — There is no + attached word + but.

E.g. : Aff: Every mother loves her child.

Neg: There is no mother but loves her child.


Rule 6: As soon as – Replaced by — No sooner had —-Than.

E.g. : Aff: As soon as the students saw the teacher, they ran away.

Neg: No sooner had the students saw the teacher they ran away.


Rule 7: Absolute Superlative degree – Replaced by — No other+ attached word + so+ verb form+ as+ subject.

E.g. : Aff: Delhi is the biggest city in India.

Neg: No other city is as big as Delhi in India.


Rule 8: Sometimes affirmative sentences are Replaced into negative by using opposite word.  Before the word, off course ’not’ is used.

E.g. : Aff: I shall remember my school teachers.

Neg : I shall not forget my school teachers.


Rule 9: Always – Replaced by — never.

E.g. : Aff: Ridhi always attends the music class.

Neg: Ridhi never miss the music class.


Rule 10 : Too— to – Replaced by — –that + cannot (in present) / could not (in past). 

Eg : Aff: He is too weak to solve the mathematical problems.

Neg: He is so weak that he cannot solve the mathematical problems.


Rule 11: As – Replaced by —  not less—than.

E.g.: Aff: Simi was as wise as Rimi.

Neg: Simi was not less wise than Rimi.


Rule 12: Sometimes – Replaced by —  Not + always.

E.g. : Aff: Anne sometimes comes to my house.

Neg: Anne doesn’t always come to my house.


Rule 13 : Many – Replaced by — not a few.

E.g. : Aff : l have many western dresses. Neg : I do not have few western dresses.


Rule 14 : A few – Replaced by — not many.

E.g. : Aff : The class has a few good students.

Neg : The class doesn’t have many good students.


Rule 15 : Much – Replaced by — a little.

E.g.: Aff : He belongs much money.

Neg : He doesn’t belong a little money.


Rule 16 : A little – Replaced by — not much. E.g. : Aff: Rishita has a little riches.

Neg : Rishita doesn’t have much riches.

II. Assertive to Interrogative :

Rule 1: If the sentence is in the affirmative you have to Replace it into negative interrogative. If it is in negative then you have to change it into bare interrogative.

E.g. : Ass: He was very cruel.

Int : Wasn’t he very cruel ?


Ass : He is not a good person.

lnt : Is he a good person ?


Rule 2: No auxiliary verb in sentence – Replaced by — using – Do/ does/ did Or Don‘t/ doesn’t. 

E.g. : Ass : He plays Football.

Int : Does he play football ?


Ass : They did not play football yesterday.

Int : Did they play football yesterday ?


Rule 3: Never- Replaced by — Ever.

E.g. : Ass : I never make false assumptions.

Int : Do I ever make false assumptions?


Rule 4: Everybody/ everyone/ All – Replaced by — Who + Don’t/ Doesn’t/ Didn‘t.

E.g. : Ass: Everybody wishes to be happy.

lnt : Who doesn’t wish to be happy ?


Rule 5: Every + noun – Replaced by — Is there any + noun+ who don‘t/ doesn‘t/ didn‘t.

Eg. : Ass : Every student wishes to score well.

Int : Is there any student who doesn’t wish to score well ?


Rule 6: No body / no one / none – Replaced by — who.

E.g : Ass: Nobody could able to achieve the goal.

Int : Who could ever able to achieve the goal ?


Rule 7: There is no – Replaced by — Is there any/Who (person)/ When (thing).

E.g. : Ass : There is no use of this book.

Int : What is the use of this hook.


Ass: There is no man happier than Jamil. Int : Who is Happier than Jamil.


Rule 8 : It is no – Replaced by — is there any/ Why.

E.g. : Ass: It is no use of taking unfair means in the exam.

Int : Why take unfair means in the exam ?

III. Exclamatory Sentence to Assertive Sentence :

Rule 1: Subject and Verb of exclamatory sentence are to be used as the subject and verb assertive sentence at the outset of the sentence.

How / what – Replaced by — Very (before adjective)/ Great (before noun)

E.g.: Excl : How lucky you are!

Ass : You are very lucky.


Excl : What a fool you are!

Ass : You are a great fool.


Rule 2: Sometimes the subject and verb may be eclipsed.

E.g. : Excl : What a beautiful scenery!

Ass : It is a very beautiful scenery.


Excl : What a pity!

Ass : It is a great pity.


Rule 3: Hurrah/ Bravo – Replaced by — I / we rejoice that/ It is a matter of joy that.

E.g. Excl : Hurrah! We have own the prize. Ass : It is a matter of joy that we have won the prize.


Rule 4: Alas – Replaced by — I/ we mourn that/ It is a matter of sorrow or grief that.

E.g. Excl : Alas! He is dead.

Ass : We mourn that he is dead.


Rule 5 : Had/ were/ If – Replaced by — I wish + subject again + were/ had+ rest part.

E.g. Excl : Had I the wings of a bird!

Ass : I Wish I had the wings of a bird.


Excl : Were I a poet!

Ass : I wish I were a poet.


Excl: If I were angel!

Ass : I wish I were angel.

IV. Imperative to Assertive :

Rule 1: Add subject + should in doing assertive.

E.g. : Imp: Close the door.

Ass : You should close the door.


Rule 2: Please /kindly – Replaced by — you are requested to.

E.g. : Imp: Please, give me.

Ass : You are requested to give me.


Rule 3: Do not – Replaced by — you should not.

E.g : Imp:Do not run in the rain.

Ass: You should not run in the rain


Rule 4: Never – Replaced by — you should never.

E.g. : Imp: Never hurt others.

Ass: You should never hurt others.


Rule 5: Let us – Replaced by — we should.

E.g. : Imp: Let us go for shopping.

Ass: We should go for shopping.


Rule 6: Let + noun/ pronoun – Replaced by — Subject + might.

E.g. : Imp: Let him go for a movie.

Ass: He might go for a movie.

V. Change of Degree :

Rule 1: If the superlative degree says about the best thing then the rule is —

For comparative, use – subject + verb + adjective/adverb (comp. form) + than any other + rest part.

For positive, use – No other + rest part after superlative degree + verb + so / as + positive form of adjective/ adverb + as + subject.

E.g. : Superlative: Mount Everest is the tallest mountain.

Comparative: Mount Everest is taller than any other mountain.

Positive: No other mountain is as tall as Mount Everest.


Rule 2: If In superlative degree ’One of the’ is transformed in this way —

Comparative : Subject + verb + comp. form +than most other+ Rest part.

Positive : Very few + rest part after superlative degree + verb + so / as + positive form of adjective/ adverb + as + subject.

E.g. : Superlative: Ramanujan was one of the greatest mathematician in India.

Comparative: Ramanujan was greater than most other mathematician in India.

Positive : Very few mathematicians in India were so great as Ramanujan.


Note : Superlative : Of all / of any

Comparative : Than all other/ than any other.

Positive : No other


E.g. : Superlative : Mr Patel is the youngest of all men in the village.

Comparative : Mr Patel is younger than all other men in the village.

Positive : No other man is as young as Mr. Patel.


Rule 3: Simple comparative is transformed into positive by using —

Not so + adjective/ adverb + as / so + adjective/ adverb + as if negative. Second noun or pronoun is used first.

E.g. :  Comparative: Rini is clever than Mina.

Positive: Mina is not so clever as Rini.


Comparative: Mina is not cleaver than Rini.

Positive: Rini is as clever as Mina.


Rule 4: No/ not less—-than – is transformed into positive by using as +adjective / adverb + as.

E.g. : Comparative: Karim is not less meritorious than Jimmy.

Positive: Karim is so meritorious as Jimmy.

VI. Complex to Simple to Compound :

Rule 1: Since /As/When — The change is to be made in the subordinate clause, when subjects are same.

E.g. : Complex: Since the boy worked hard, he made a good profit in his business.

Simple: Working hard, the boy made a good profit in his business.

Compound: The boy worked hard and he made a good profit.


When converting to simple sentence :

i. Omit since /as /when.

ii. (Verb+ing) of the subordinate clause.

iii. Then write the rest part.

iv. Use subject with the principal clause.

v. Principal clause remains unchanged.


Rule 2: In case of Be verb in subordinate clause —

E.g. : Complex: Since he was ill, he could not work hard.

1) Use being/ Because of + Pronoun/ noun (possessive form)+ being.

Simple: Because of his being ill, he could not work hard.

Compound : He was ill and therefore could not work hard.

(Note : and therefore, is used for showing reasons.)


Rule 3: When the subjects of clauses are different —

E.g. : Complex: Since the shops were closed, we did not go out.

1) Verb + ing (be verb being; Have verb – having)

Simple : The shops being closed, we did not go out.

Compound : The shops were closed and therefore, we did not go out.

(Note : use ’and therefore’ to join two clauses).


Rule 4: If – Replaced by — ’by’ + (verb + ing)

E.g. : Complex: If you listen to the lecture, you will be able to do the assignment.

Simple: By listening to the lecture, you will be able to do the assignment

1) Omit if + subject.

2) Use ’and’ to join two clauses

Compound: Listen to the lecture and you will able to do the assignment.


Rule 5: Simple: If not/ unless – Replaced by — without+(verb + ing)

E.g. : Complex: If you do not work hard, you will get poor marks in the examination.

Simple: Without working hard, you will get poor marks in the examination.

1)Use or / otherwise to join two clauses.

Compound: Work hard or you will get poor marks in the examination.


Rule 6: Simple : Though – Replaced by — In spite of+ Possessive form of the sublect + ing.

E.g. : Complex: Though he tried heart and soul, he could not succeed in life.

Simple : In spite of his trying heart and soul he could not succeed in life.

1)Use ’but’ to join two clauses.

Compound: He tried heart and soul but he could not succeed in life.


Rule 7: Simple: So that is – Replaced by —to/ in order to.

E.g. : Complex: He must work hard so that he may make up for the last time.

Simple : He must work hard to/ in order to make up for the lost time.

1)“and want/ wants to” is used to join two clauses.

Compound: He must work hard and wants to make up for the lost time.


Rule 8: Simple: ’so + adjective + that’ is – Replaced by — ‘too + adjective + to’.

E.g. : Complex: The boy is so foolish that he cannot understand it.

Simple : The boy is too foolish to understand it.

1) Use ‘And Therefore’ to make it a compound sentence. 

Compound: He is so foolish and therefore cannot understand it.


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